Idaho Amateur Radio
Emergency Service
   
Table of Contents
Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) County Codes

The Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) county code is composed from a 2-digit state code and a 3-digit county code. The state code for Idaho is 16. County codes are usually assigned in numerical sequence, using odd numbers to accomodate changes or additions without upsetting the existing order, derived from an alphabetical ordering of counties that starts at number 1.

FIPS codes are used by the Emergency Alert System (EAS) and NOAA Weather Radio (NWR) to define geographical locations used in the Specific Area Message Encoding (SAME) protocol which is used to encode the message.

Recently (November 2015), FIPS codes have also been adopted for Army MARS operations.


# COUNTY NAME FIPS COUNTY CODE
1 Ada 16001
2 Adams 16003
3 Bannock 16005
4 Bear Lake 16007
5 Benewah 16009
6 Bingham 16011
7 Blaine 16013
8 Boise 16015
9 Bonner 16017
10 Bonneville 16019
11 Boundary 16021
12 Butte 16023
13 Camas 16025
14 Canyon 16027
15 Caribou 16029
16 Cassia 16031
17 Clark 16033
18 Clearwater 16035
19 Custer 16037
20 Elmore 16039
21 Franklin 16041
22 Fremont 16043
23 Gem 16045
24 Gooding 16047
25 Idaho 16049
26 Jefferson 16051
27 Jerome 16053
28 Kootenai 16055
29 Latah 16057
30 Lemhi 16059
31 Lewis 16061
32 Lincoln 16063
33 Madison 16065
34 Minidoka 16067
35 Nez Perce 16069
36 Oneida 16071
37 Owyhee 16073
38 Payette 16075
39 Power 16077
40 Shoshone 16079
41 Teton 16081
42 Twin Falls 16083
43 Valley 16085
44 Washington 16087

A .zip archive containing .pdf, Excel and Numbers documents with FIPS codes for all United States counties can be downloaded by clicking here.

ABREVIATIONS

AC Alternating Current
AFSK Audio Frequency Shift Keying
AGC Automatic Gain Control
AM Amplitude Modulation - method to put voice information on a carrier by changing the carrier amplitude
APRS Automatic Packet Reporting System
ARES Amateur Radio Emergency Service
ARRL American Radio Relay League
AMSAT Amateur Satellite Corporation, a non-profit amateur satellite builder & operator
AMTOR AMateur Teleprinting Over Radio, a method of sending teletype data
CPU Central Processing Unit
CQ Calling Any Station (Morse Code shorthand)
CTCSS Continuous Tone Coded Squelch System or Private Line™ - low frequency (sub-audible) audio (67.0 Hz to 254.1 Hz) added to a transmitter to allow a receiver to open its squelch only when tone is present
CSCE Certificate of Successful Completion of Examination
CW Continuous Wave - used to send Morse Code by turning on/off the carrier wave
dB Decibel - relative unit of measure, normally used to express power or intensity - usually sound level or signal strength
DB-23 DB signifies a type of computer connector. 23 signifies 23 pins.
DC Direct Current
DCS Digital Coded Squelch
DTMF Dual Tone Multi-Frequency - Touch Tone™ as used on telephones
FCC Federal Communications Commission
FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency
FM Frequency Modulation - method to put voice information on a carrier by changing the carrier frequency
GPS Global Positioning System
IC Integrated Circuit
ID Identification
IRLP Internet Radio Linking Protocol - a voice over internet protocol specifically for connecting radios via the internet
ITU International Telecommunication Union - part of the United Nations
MARS Military Affiliate Radio Service
MFSK Multiple Frequency Shift Keying
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NTSC National Television Systems Committee
OET Office of Engineering and Technology of the FCC
Packet A method of sending digital information by radio
PEP Peak Envelope Power - used to measure transmitter power on Single Side Band
PL Private Line™ - see CTCSS
PL-259
SO-239
Type of coaxial cable connectors
PM Phase Modulation - method to put voice information on a carrier by changing the carrier phase
Phone Voice Transmission
PSK Phase Shift Keying - used to send Morse Code or Data by changing the carrier phase
PSK31 Method of data transmission
QRM Man Made Noise (Morse Code shortcut)
QRN Natural Noise (Morse Code shortcut)
QRU I have no traffic for you (Morse Code shortcut)
QRZ Who is calling me? (Morse Code shortcut)
QSB Your signal is fading (Morse Code shortcut)
QSL I acknowledge receipt (Morse Code shortcut)
QSY Change frequency to ... (Morse Code shortcut)
QTH Location (Morse Code shortcut)
RACES Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service
RF Radio Frequency
RG-8,... RG signifies coaxial cable. Number signifies specification.
RIT Receiver Incremental Tuning
RTTY Radio Teletype
Repeater Radio station, usually on a hilltop, that re-broadcasts on its output frequency anything it receives on its input frequency
SSB Single Side Band - Sends only one side band of an AM signal
SWR Standing Wave Ratio - a ratio of power from the transmitter to the power returned from the antenna
TNC Terminal Node Controller - used to send or receive digital data (i.e. a radio modem)
ULS Universal Licensing System of the FCC
USB Universal Serial Bus
VE(C) Volunteer Examiner (Coordinator)
VFO Variable Frequency Oscillator
VOIP Voice over Internet Protocol - used to convert voice to data, convey data over the internet, and then convert data to voice
VTVM Vacuum Tube Volt Meter
WPM Words Per Minute - to measure morse code speed (5 letters per word)
WSJT Computer program used for weak signal radio communications
WWV Shortwave radio station which broadcasts accurate time

ANTENNAS - HF

HF DIPOLE ANTENNA CALCULATIONS
BAND
METERS
FREQUENCY
MHz
HALF-WAVE QUARTER-WAVE MAXIMUM NVIS HEIGHT
80 3.500 133’ 8” 66’ 11” 33’ 5”
3.600 130’ 0” 65’ 0” 32’ 6”
3.700 126’ 6” 63’ 3” 31’ 7”
75 3.800 123’ 2” 61’ 7” 30’ 9”
3.900 120’ 0” 60’ 0” 30’ 0”
4.000 117’ 0” 58’ 6” 29’ 3”
60 5.3305 87’ 9” 43’ 11” 21’ 11”
5.3570 87’ 5” 43’ 8” 21’ 9”
5.4305 86’ 7” 43’ 3” 21’ 8”
40 7.000 66’ 11” 33’ 5” 16’ 8”
7.100 65’ 11” 33’ 0” 16’ 6”
7.200 65’ 0” 32’ 6” 16’ 3”
7.300 64’ 1” 32’ 1” 16’ 0”
30 10.100 46’ 3” 23’ 2” 11’ 7”
10.150 46’ 1” 23’ 1” 11’ 6”
20 14.000 33’ 5” 16’ 8” NVIS
NOT
POSSIBLE
14.100 33’ 2” 16’ 7”
14.200 33’ 0” 16’ 6”
14.300 32’ 7” 16’ 5”
14.350 32’ 7” 16’ 3”
17 18.068 25’ 11” 13’ 0”
18.168 25’ 9” 12’ 11”
15 21.000 22’ 3” 11’ 1”
21.100 22’ 2” 11’ 1”
21.200 22’ 1” 11’ 0”
21.300 22’ 0” 11’ 0”
21.400 21’ 10” 10’ 11”
21.450 21’ 9” 10’ 11”
12 24.890 18’ 9” 9’ 4”
24.940 18’ 9” 9’ 4”
24.990 18’ 8” 9’ 4”
10 28.000 16’ 8” 8’ 4”
28.100 16’ 8” 8’ 3”
28.200 16’ 7” 8’ 3”
28.300 16’ 6” 8’ 3”
28.400 16’ 6” 8’ 2”
28.500 16’ 4” 8’ 2”
28.600 16’ 4” 8’ 2”
28.700 16’ 3” 8’ 2”
28.800 16’ 3” 8’ 1”
28.900 16’ 2” 8’ 1”
29.000 16’ 1” 8’ 1”
29.100 16’ 1” 8’ 0”
29.200 16’ 0” 8’ 0”
29.300 16’ 0” 8’ 0”
29.400 15’ 11” 8’ 0”
29.500 15’ 11” 7’ 11”
29.600 15’ 9” 7’ 11”
29.700 15’ 9” 7’ 11”

Skywave Antennas should be constructed at least 1/2 wavelength above ground in order to reduce the angle of radiation. This results in reducing the number of hops required to contact a distant station.


Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS) antennas should be constructed no more than 1/8 wavelength above ground in order to increase the angle of radiation so that a single hop (i.e. through the D-layer, to the F-layer, and back through the D-layer to the ground) results in propagation from a few miles out to a maximum of approximately 600 miles.

For improved efficiency of an NVIS antenna, a parasitic reflector may be placed on the ground, underneath the driven element.

The maximum NVIS antenna height for frequencies allocated to the Amateur Radio service above 30 meters is omitted as the foF2 critical frequency rarely climbs above 11 MHz.


ANTENNAS - VHF & UHF

2m VHF / 70cm UHF Antenna Comparison
Manufacturer Model Grade Frequency Gain
dBd
Vertical
Beam
Width
(degrees)
Height Weight
(lbs)
Wind
(mph)
Wind
Loading
(sq.’.)
Price
(Retail)
Andrew DB2222 C 143-150 3.0 38° 10'5" 16   1.6 $469.95
DB224 C 138-150 6.0 16° 23'3" 38   3.15 $549.95
Cellwave Super Stationmaster C 142-150 5.3 18° 19"3" 25 160 125 $1008.00
Comprod Comm 872A-70TM C 138-174 5.0 34° 10'6" 21   1.81 $599.95
874A-70TM C 138-174 8.0 16° 20'4" 68   4.65 $1199.95
Comm Scope DB224-E C 138-174 6.0 16° 23'3" 28   3.15 $730.00
Diamond X30A A 144-148
435-450
3.0
5.5
  4'6"   135   $59.95
X50A A 144-148
435-450
4.5
7.2
  5'7" 2.3 135   $79.95
CP22E A 144-148 6.5   8'11" 2.4 70   $49.95
F22A A 144-148 6.7   10'6" 2.9 112.5   $79.95
F23H A 144-174 7.8   15' 5 90   $129.95
X200A A 144-148
435-450
6.0
8.0
  8'2" 2.6 112   $109.95
NGC Comet CX333 A 144-148
220-225
440-450
4.3
5.6
6.8
  10'4" 3.5 110   $179.95
GP-1 A 144-148
440-450
0.8
3.8
  4'1" 2.3 134   $74.95
GP-3 A 144-148
440-450
2.3
5.0
  5'10" 2.5     $99.95
GP-6 A 144-148
440-450
4.3
6.8
  10'1" 3     $149.95
GP-9 A 144-148
440-450
6.3
9.7
  16'10" 4.8     $199.95
GP-95 A 144-148
440-450
1200
3.8
6.4
10.6
  8'0" 2.6     $149.95
GP-15 A 50-54
144-148
440-450
0.8
4.0
6.4
  7'11" 3     $169.95
Sinclair SD224 C 142-152 6.0 36° 18' 35   2.6 $1169.95
TeleWave ANT150D6-9 C 138-174 6.0 18° 16'3" 28   3.3 $1089.95
Tram 1487 A 144-148 4.5   5'7" 2.5 135   $59.95
1481 A 144-148
440-450
8.3
11.7
  17' 5.6 90   $119.95
1490 A 144-148 6.7   10'6" 3.7 110   $89.95
1491 A 144-174 7.8   14'10" 5.1 90   $99.95

BANDS & FREQUENCY RANGES

Amateur Radio Bands (Not Complete)
TYPE BAND
(meters)
MHz Use License Class
HF 160 1.8 - 2.0 night Extra, Advanced, General
80/75 3.5 - 4.0 night & local day, NVIS Extra, Advanced, General, Novice, Technician (CW Only)
60m 5.3300 - 5.4035 night & local day, NVIS Extra, Advanced, General
40 7.000 - 7.300 night & local day, NVIS Extra, Advanced, General, Novice, Technician (CW Only)
30 10.1 - 10.15 CW & Digital Extra, Advance, General
20 14.0 - 14.35 world wide, day & night Extra, Advanced, General
17 18.068 - 18.168 world wide day & night Extra, Advanced, General
15 21.000 - 21.450 primarily daytime, occasional night, world wide Extra, Advanced, General, Novice, Technician (CW Only)
12 24.890 - 24.990 primarily daytime, world wide Extra, Advanced, General
10 28.000 - 29.700 primarily daytime, world wide Extra, Advanced, General, Novice, Technician
VHF 6 50.0 - 54.0 local to worldwide Extra, Advanced, General, Technician
2 144 - 148 local & medium distance Extra, Advanced, General, Technician
1.25 222 - 225 local Extra, Advanced, General, Technician
UHF 70cm 420 - 450 local Extra, Advanced, General, Technician
33cm 902 - 928 local Extra, Advanced, General, Technician
23cm 1240 - 1300 local Extra, Advanced, General, Technician

Frequency Ranges
AF Audio Frequency 20 Hz - 20 kHz
VLF Very Low Frequency 3 kHz - 30 kHz
LF Low Frequency 30 kHz - 300 kHz
MF Medium Frequency 300 kHz - 3 MHz
HF High Frequency 3 MHz - 30 MHz
VHF Very High Frequency 30 MHz to 300 MHz
UHF Ultra High Frequency 300 MHz to 3 GHz

COAXIAL FEED-LINE

50 Ω COAXIAL FEED-LINE
TYPE ATTENUATION (dB per 100 feet) POWER HANDLING (kW: +40°C; Sea Level) VELOCITY
FACTOR
BEND
RADIUS
INCHES
30
MHz
50
MHz
150
MHz
220
MHz
450
MHz
900
MHz
30
MHz
50
MHz
150
MHz
220
MHz
450
MHz
900
MHz
RG-58 2.5 3.1 6.2 7.4 10.8 16.5 0.40 0.30 0.16   0.06 0.05 0.66  
RG8/X 2.0 2.5 4.7 6.0 8.5 12.8 0.35 0.28 0.15   0.08 0.05 0.84  
RG213 1.2 1.6 2.8 3.5 5.2 8.0 1.8 1.2 0.62   0.30 0.18 0.66  
RG214 1.2 1.6 2.8 3.5 5.2 8.0 1.8 1.2 0.62   0.30 0.18 0.66  
RG8/U   1.2       6.5   1.609       0.393 0.78 4.0
BELDEN 9913 0.8 0.9 1.5   2.7 4.19 2.2 1.7 0.9   0.45 0.28 0.84  
LMR-400 0.7 0.9 1.5 1.8 2.7 3.9 3.3 2.6 1.5 1.2 0.83 0.58 0.85 12
LMR-600 0.421 0.547 0.954 1.18 1.72 2.54 5.5 4.3 2.4 1.9 1.3 0.93 0.87 18
LDF4-50A 0.357 0.463 0.815   1.447   6.51 5.02 2.85   1.61   0.88 5.0
LMR-900 0.288 0.374 0.558 0.803 1.17 1.70 8.9 5.8 3.9 3.2 2.2 1.5 0.87 36

FILES
FORMULAS

ELECTRONICS FORMULAS
GROUP CONVERSION FORMULA
OHMS LAW Voltage E = I * R
E = P ÷ I
E = √(P * R)
Amps I = E ÷ R
I = √(P ÷ R)
I = P ÷ E
Watts P = E * I
P = I2 * R
P = E2 ÷ R
Resistance R = E ÷ I
R = P ÷ I2
R = E2 ÷ P
LOG -> LINEAR VOLTAGE dBµV to Volts V = 10((dBµV - 120) / 20)
Volts to dBµV dBµV = 20log(V) + 120
dBV to Volts V = 10(dBV / 120)
Volts to dBV dBV = 20log(V)
dBV to dBµV dBµV = dBV + 120
dBµV to dBV dBV = dBµV - 120
LOG -> LINEAR CURRENT dBµA to µA µA = 10(dBµA / 20)
µA to dBµA dBµA = 20log(µA)
dBA to A A = 10(dBA / 20)
A to dBA dBA = 20log(A)
dBA to dBµA dBµA = dBA + 120
dBµA to dBA dBA = dBµA - 120
LOG -> LINEAR POWER dBm to Watts W = 10((dBm - 30)/10)
Watts to dBm dBm = 10log(W) + 30
dBW to Watts W = 10(dBW/10)
Watts to dBW dBW = 10log(W)
dBW to dBm dBm = dBW + 30
dBm to dBW dBW = dBm - 30
TERM CONVERSIONS
50Ω
dBm to dBµV dBµV = dBm + 107
dBµV to dBm dBm = dBµV - 107
dBm to dBµA dBµA = dBm + 73
dBµA to dBm dBm = dBµA - 73
dBµA to dBµV dBµV = dBµA + 34
dBµV to dBµA dBµA = dBµV - 34
FIELD STRENGTH
&
POWER DENSITY
dBµV/m to Vm V/m = 10(((dBµV/m)-120)/20)
V/m to dBµV/m dBµV/m = 20log(V/m) + 120
dBµV/m to dBmW/m2 dBmW/m2 = dBµV/m - 115.8
dBmW/m2 to dBµV/m dBµV/m = dBµV/m = dBmW/m2 + 115.8
dBµV/m to dBµA/m dBµA/m = dBµV/m - 51.5
dBµA/m to dBµV/m dBµV/m = dBµA + 51.5
dBµA/m to dBpT dBpT = dBµA/m + 2
dBpT to dBµA/m dBµA/m = dBpT - 2
W/m2 to V/m V/m = √(W/m2 * 377)
V/m to W/m2 W/m2 = (V/m)2 ÷ 377
µT to A/m A/m = µT / 1.25
A/m to µT µT = 1.25 * A/m
E-FIELD ANTENNAS Correction Factors dBµA/m = dBµV + AF
Assumed E-Field for shielded loops dBµV/m = dBµA/m + 51.5
dBpt = dBµV + dBpT/µV
LOOP ANTENNAS Correction Factor dBµA = dBµV - dB(ohm)
REACTANCE
&
RESONANCE
Capacitive Reactance XC = 1 ÷ ( 2πƒC )
Inductive Reactance XL = 2πƒL
Resonance ƒ = 1 ÷ ( 2π √( LC ) )
Q Q = X ÷ R
Bandwidth BW = ƒc ÷ Q

RESISTOR COLOR CODE

RESISTOR COLOR CODE
COLOR DIGIT 1 DIGIT 2 DIGIT 3 MULTIPLIER TOLERANCE
Black 0 0 0 x 100  
Brown 1 1 1 X 101 ±1% (F)
Red 2 2 2 X 102 ±2% (G)
Orange 3 3 3 X 103  
Yellow 4 4 4 X 104  
Green 5 5 5 X 105 ±0.5% (D)
Blue 6 6 6 X 106 ±2.5% (C)
Violet 7 7 7 X 107 ±0.1% (B)
Gray 8 8 8 X 108 ±0.05% (A)
White 9 9 9 X 109  
Gold       X 0.1 ±5% (J)
Silver       X 0.01 ±10% (K)
None         ±20% (M)

SAFETY

MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE (MPE) LIMITS
CONTROLLED EXPOSURE (6-MINUTE AVERAGE) CONTROLLED EXPOSURE (30-MINUTE AVERAGE)
Frequency
Range
(MHz)
Electric
Field
Strength
(V/m)
Magnetic
Field
Strength
(A/m)
Power
Density
(mW/cm2
Electric
Field
Strength
(V/m)
Magnetic
Field
Strength
(A/m)
Power
Density
(mW/cm2
0.3-3.0 614 1.63 (100)*      
3.0-30 1842/f 4.89/f (900/f2)*      
0.3-1.34       614 1.63 (100)*
1.34-30       824/f 2.19/f (180/f2)*
30-300 61.4 0.163 1.0 27.5 0.073 0.2
300-1500 -- -- f/300 -- -- f/1500
1,500-100,000 -- -- 5 -- -- 1.0
f = frequency in MHz
* = Plane-wave equivalent power (This means the equivalent far-field strength that would have the E-field or H-field component calculated or measured. It does not apply well in the near field of the antenna).
-- = Not specified.

Phonetic Alphabet

The use of the ITU/ICAO Phonetic Alphabet is the standard phonetic alphabet for Amateur Radio operations. Although some Amateur Radio operators make up phonetics, there is no proof that these achieve better results in achieving clarity. Further, making a habit of using non-standard phonetics can create the habit of using non-standard phonetics, and may carry over to emergency communications and public service communications. The standard ITU/ICAO Phonetic Alphabet is shown below:


ITU/ICAO Phonetic Alphabet
Character Morse Telephony Pronunciation
A •- Alpha AL-FAH
B -••• Bravo BRAH-FOH
C -•-• Charlie CHAR-LEE or SHAR-LEE
D -•• Delta DELL-TAH
E Echo ECK-OH
F ••-• Foxtrot FOKS-TROT
G --• Golf GOLF
H •••• Hotel HOH-TEL
I India IN-DEE-AH
J •--- Juliet JEW-LEE-ETT
K -•- Kilo KEY-LOH
L •-•• Lima LEE-MAH
M -- Mike MIKE
N -• November NO-VEM-BER
O --- Oscar OSS-CAH
P •--• Papa PAH-PAH
Q --•- Quebec KEH-BECK
R •-• Romeo ROW-ME-OH
S ••• Sierra SEE-AIR-RAH
T - Tango TANG-GO
U ••- Uniform YOU-NEE-FORM or OO-NEE-FORM
V •••- Victor VIK-TAH
W •-- Whiskey WISS-KEY
X -••- Xray ECKS-RAY
Y -•-- Yankee YANG-KEY
Z --•• Zulu ZOO-LOO
1 •---- One WUN
2 ••--- Two TOO
3 •••-- Three TREE
4 ••••- Four FOW-ER
5 ••••• Five FIFE
6 -•••• Six SIX
7 --••• Seven SEV-EN
8 •••-- Eight AIT
9 ----• Nine NIN-ER
0 ----- Zero ZEE-RO

Pro-words

There are many definitions of pro-words that are applicable to clarify the passing of formal traffic. These are usually used in a structured communications environment, such as a network (NET) or during emergency communications. The use of specified pro-words may be dependent upon the organization that you are operating with. The following list is comprised of common pro-words, but is not to be considered a definitive set:


Pro-words
Pro-word Definition
Affirmative Means Yes, I agree or permission granted.
Break Used to separate NTS message text from the address or signature block. Not to be used to interrupt a contact in progress.
Break-Break Used to indicate that you have emergency or priority traffic that must be handled immediately.
Check-break Used to indicate that you are pausing to verify copy of your message.
Clear Transmission completed, no response required.
Copy Used to indicate the transmission has been received.
Correct Acknowledgement that transmission was correct.
Correction Indicates that an error was detected and the transmission will resume with the last correct word.
Decimal Indicates a decimal point
Disregard An error has been made and the entire transmission should be ignored.
Figures Indicates that the following words are to be copied as numbers. Used to switch from Letters to Figures.
Go ahead Used to indicate a station may respond.
I Spell Indicates the word will be spelled phonetically.
Initial Single letter follows.
Letters Indicates that the following words are to be copied as letters. Used to switch from Figures to Letters.
Negative Used to indicate No, I disagree or permission denied.
Numbers Indicates that the following words are to be copied as numbers. Used to switch from Letters to Numbers.
Numerals Indicates that the following words are to be copied as numbers. Used to switch from Letters to Numerals. NOTE: Figures is preferred over Numerals. It is recommended that you use Figures.
Out Transmission completed, no response required.
Over Used to let another station know to respond.
Roger Used to indicate the transmission has been received and understood.
Say Again Used to request that the last message be repeated.
Say Again All After Used to indicate that the portion of the message after the indicated word should be repeated.
Say Again All Before Used to indicate that the portion of the message before the indicated word should be repeated.
Say Again Word After Used to indicate that the word after the specified word should be repeated.
Say Again Word Before Used to indicate that the word before the specified word should be repeated.
Stand-by Used to indicate that all stations should hold transmission until notified otherwise.
This Is Used to identify the station whose call sign follows.
Wait Used to indicate that all stations should hold transmission until notified otherwise.
Wilco Indicates that the command was understood and that the station will comply with the command.
XRay Used to indicate that a period should be entered at the end of the line just copied.

Pro-words are generally used in a formal and structured network (NET) environment. However, they may be used at anytime where utility can be gained from their use.